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screening versus testing
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How does your body process medicine? 

"Have you ever wondered what happens to a painkiller, like ibuprofen, after you swallow it? Medicine that slides down your throat can help treat a headache, a sore back, or a throbbing sprained ankle. But how does it get where it needs to go in the first place? Céline Valéry explains how your body processes medicine."

When considering a urine drug test (UDT) to screen for substance use
Ask Yourself:  What does pee tell you?
The Answer:   Not a lot.
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"Pregnant and postpartum people have the right refuse any medical procedure including a drug test, and they have the right to refuse any medical procedure on
behalf of their children (with some exceptions related to child abuse and neglect prevention). Nonetheless, pregnant and postpartum women and their newborn
babies are typically drug tested in medical settings without their knowledge or explicit, informed consent."

Is drug testing ever medically-necessary or relevant?
Sample detection times for substances that are routinely tested for.
What are the ethical dilemmas faced by providers?
What are the legal liabilities of testing and collecting evidence?
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